Hardware/Software Codesign of Real-Time Intrusion Detection System for Internet of Things Devices


The rapid expansion of the Internet of Things (IoT) has increased security concerns, thereby necessitating efficient intrusion detection systems (IDS). In this paper, we propose a real-time IoT IDS designed by combining a random forest (RF) classifier with an ensemble feature selection technique (EFST). The proposed IDS can be deployed on a small-scale field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board. The system utilizes a two-metric ensemble feature selection process to reduce computational complexity and enhance classification accuracy. In addition, the EFST aggressively extracts a limited number of features, thereby reducing the complexity of the RF model. Then, the tailored RF classifier is mapped onto an FPGA-based hardware accelerator to realize real-time detection. The proposed method was evaluated experimentally on the benchmark BoT-IoT dataset. The results demonstrate that the proposed IDS realizes significant improvements in terms of resource utilization and processing time compared to several state-of-the-art FPGA-based IDS implementations while maintaining sufficient detection accuracy. In particular, our implementation on the Xilinx PYNQ Z2 achieved 10.2×, 135.7×, and 8.43× speed-up compared to state-of-the-art IDSs running on an Intel Core i7 CPU, an ARM Cortex-A9 microprocessor, and a neural network-based accelerator on the PYNQ, respectively. In addition, our approach exhibits the lowest resource utilization among FPGA-based IDS solutions. These results demonstrate that this work contributes to developing secure and sustainable IoT ecosystems by integrating EFST, RF classification, and FPGA-based acceleration.

IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 2024. Vol. 11, Issue 12, pp.22351-22363, Jun. 2024.
Qingyu Zeng
Qingyu Zeng
PhD Student

My research interests include machine learning, FPGA, hardware acceleration, and IoT network security.